If you’re struggling to verify the identities of multiple interactive ancestors – especially ancestors who went by the same name – here’s one low-tech, but highly effective way to do it:
This document, from our work at hisxmark.com, compares five men who went by the same name in two South Carolina counties in the late 1700s. It uses color coding to track the appearances of related family names throughout the period, enabling easy recognition of patterns.
If you’d like to use the same process, you’ll need more patience than book smarts. You can use Word – a program that almost everyone can access. Simply paraphrase all known records as a chronological list and include all names mentioned. Then assign a unique background color to individual or family names. As you assign the colors, you should start to see patterns in the data. Your ancestors should start to present themselves to you as unique individuals.
We just completed a family history investigation in Shropshire, England, and Powys, Wales, where we sought answers to difficult questions about ancestors’ emigration to America in the 1600s. Since documentation is limited for that time period, the family historian has to use some real creativity to piece together answers.
As we wrote in part 2 of this series, understanding the historical context of our ancestors’ lives is critically important to ferreting out new generational links and lateral inferences. Understanding the religious context of our ancestors’ lives is probably one of the most important aspects of this work. Religious trends – especially before the 19th century – had an enormous impact on Western Europeans, often guiding even their most pragmatic decisions.
In the case of our subject, Dr. Edward Maddox (d. 1694), religion was the paramount issue of his time and place. As a Protestant in rural England, he was directly affected by the Protestant Reformation, the English Civil War, and the Restoration – all of which were premised on a violent debate of the legitimacy of certain religious beliefs. Understanding his allegiances during those events could shed light on his family’s motivations to leave England – and would be interesting in itself.
Edward Maddox emigrated from England to the American Colonies sometime between 1656 and 1668. He was among the very first Englishmen to live in the area. Court records document Edward’s rough frontier medicine, land speculation, wolf hunts and conflict with the Native Americans.
In his early adulthood in England, Edward would have endured the 1642-1651 English Civil War, during which 6 percent – or 300,000 – of his countrymen died. It was a fight between “roundheads” and “cavaliers” – parliamentarians and royalists. The parliamentarians won in 1651. It was England’s experiment with republicanism, and for a decade it functioned roughly as intended, with Oliver Cromwell’s cronies keeping order over a rowdy parliament until 1659.
But beneath Cromwell’s anti-monarchism there was a darker religious fervor… against Catholics. The English establishment could not stand the implications of a Catholic king – the economic upheaval it would risk – and rumors of English kings’ Papal alliances were truly incendiary.
Everything in Edward’s records indicates he was a fervent anti-Catholic. We see him in Stafford County, Virginia, in the late 1680s befriending the notorious Parson Waugh, whose claim to infamy was his 1681 incitement of an anti-Catholic riot in Virginia. Waugh falsely claimed that Maryland Catholics were crossing the Potomac River with Seneca Indians to murder Virginians in their sleep. Waugh and Edward Maddox’s other friend George Mason (grandfather of the Founding Father) would be punished for the subterfuge.
But where Edward’s Colonial records reveal his strong anti-Catholic sentiments, the records do not reveal any strong favor for the king. In England, he was married by a Parliamentarian magistrate instead of a parish priest. His departure from England around 1660 – as the parliamentarians lost power and King Charles II restored the monarchy – could mean fear of royalist retribution. If Edward left England at the time of Charles’ crowning in 1660, it could mean he was fleeing the royalists’ wrath, or rejecting the king’s rumored Papism in favor of more puritanical Protestantism in America like many others did. He would have been among friends in Maryland, where he resided until 1684 – a year before King Charles II’s death.
Edward’s later life also raises some questions about his competing allegiances to God and King. Although Edward rose in social prominence in Maryland and Virginia through the 1680s by marrying into the prominent Stone and Mason families, he did not attain a public position as a Justice of the Peace in Stafford County, Virginia, until 1691. His very late Justice appointment – when he was probably 80, and just after the king’s death – may indicate that Edward had been a political outsider during the king’s reign, but that he was finally brought into the fold after allegiances changed. It’s fodder for deeper investigation.
Similar to Edward Maddox’s story, your ancestor almost certainly was affected by the religious trends of his or her time. But digging into the complexities of historical religious trends can be daunting. Not everyone is interested in reading multiple 800-page books on the arcane subject of the Reformation, for instance. And they shouldn’t be. Happily, the basics of religious trends can be accessed by simple wikipedia searches or through other online searches, and these searches will invariably lead to deeper resources. As you continue to build documentary evidence of an ancestor’s life, you can read those papers in the context of religious trends. This little exercise will open a very useful lens.
Genealogists often fixate on inducing certain results, such as establishing a family’s lineage back to European royalty or American Revolution participation. Finding links to historical events and famous individuals can change our perspectives on who we are. Along the way, though, most genealogists ignore the rich history of “ordinary” relatives’ lives. Ignoring these stories is tragic.
Among the most impressive genealogical findings are the obscure stories of relatives’ accomplishments, difficult decisions, near-death experiences, and triumphs over adversity. These stories don’t come easily. They’re often deeply hidden in the pages of a forgotten local history book, or they’re only obliquely discoverable by poring over multiple texts and connecting the dots. Sometimes these stories are never written down and we have to painstakingly coax them from a living generation’s memories. But they’re always worth the effort.
Among our favorite stories is the Maddox family‘s experience in the Civil War. A curious story has been passed down the generations – a story we originally thought was impossible. The legend was that three Maddox brothers – who had fought on both sides of the Civil War – gathered in an Illinois farmhouse some years after the war and talked of their experiences. One brother explained that his unit had been chasing a Confederate unit and finally caught up with them. In a pitched battle, he had taken aim at a cavalryman atop his horse and shot at him, but missed and instead killed the horse. Later in the battle he saw the same cavalryman who had found another horse. Determined, the brother took aim at the cavalryman again and fired his rifle, only to kill the cavalryman’s second horse. The cavalryman then disappeared in the confusion of the battle.
Hearing this story, one of the other Maddox brothers rose from his chair and exclaimed, “You son of a b****, that was me!”
The story demanded some research. We came to learn through muster rolls and pension records – easily available on ancestry.com and fold3.com – that Joseph Jefferson Maddox had enlisted as a cavalryman with the Union 3rd Kentucky Cavalry Regiment, and his brother Benjamin Wesley “Wes” Maddox had enlisted with the Confederate 10th Cavalry Regiment, of Morgan’s Raiders. Colby Stevenson Maddox enlisted with the Union in Illinois, and a fourth, William, enlisted in the Union and died in the war. If the storytelling actually occurred in that Illinois farmhouse, then Joseph, Wes and Colby were the men telling stories.
When we first heard the story, we knew little of Morgan’s Raiders – Wes’s unit – and not many Americans do. Their wartime operations, mostly in 1863, were largely an attempt to draw Union forces from their strategic objectives, and are obscured by the enormity of the war’s other events at the time. In the east, Union General Meade had defeated General Lee at Gettysburg on July 13, causing unrecoverable personnel losses. To the west, Major General Grant had defeated the Confederate garrison at Vicksburg by July 4, thus disrupting the Confederacy’s critical Mississippi passage. The Union then committed to eliminating General John Hunt Morgan’s cavalry, who was increasingly making a mockery of Union control of the Ohio region. A victory over the elusive Morgan’s Raiders – who had been showcased in popular Northern newspapers as marauding bandits – would demonstrate that the South had lost its freedom of movement. The North could claim some rule of law in the Ohio region.
Modern tacticians would call Morgan’s Raiders guerrillas. They moved swiftly, with little heavy equipment, and made no permanent gains. Their task was to harass local militias and civilians and to draw the greater Union force into the most difficult type of warfare. After previous successes in Kentucky, in June 1863 Morgan led his troops on a 1,000 mile offensive – called the “Great Raid” – from southern Kentucky through Indiana and into southern Ohio.
Morgan’s Raiders were emboldened by frequent small victories early in the Great Raid, but by July 9, the Raiders – including Wes’s unit – were being closely pursued by a strong Union force, including the cavalry unit that great-great Uncle Joseph belonged to, according to battlefield histories. Joseph certainly would have known that he was pursuing his own brother’s unit. There would have been ample opportunity for the kind of sniping described in the brothers’ war stories. So the fantastic family legend may have some truth to it. But it was at the Buffington Island Ford, near Portland, Ohio, that the brothers would have a run-in of Shakespearean proportions.
We do not know exactly what happened. We know from partial war journals that the Union pursuit of Morgan’s Raiders reached its peak on July 19. The men on both sides were ragged, stinking, overheated and exhausted after a week of sleepless horseback pursuit. The Raiders slowed as they attempted to cross at a ford over the Ohio River toward the relative safety of West Virginia, and the Union cavalry and a gunboat opened fire on them. Over 700 Raiders were captured by Joseph’s unit. Among those captured was Joseph’s own brother, Wes. As a result of his brother’s actions, Wes would spend the last two years of the war in one of the most atrocious prison camps of the war – Camp Douglas in Chicago, where one in five prisoners died of disease, famine, cold or abuse.
There are many stories of families splitting over the Civil War, but there are few of brother fighting brother in a battle. It’s the kind of historical narrative that should make us sit up in our chair, and it beats most claims of European royalty somewhere down the line. But too often, stories like this one are denied their place in our family histories because we don’t take the time to dig into the seemingly pedestrian lives of our quietest ancestors. They deserve better.
Hopefully you’ll agree genealogical research is about much more than describing a relative’s descent from royalty. The extraordinary effort that genealogists put into their family history should result in deep context of relatives’ lives. One of the best ways to build compelling context for your subjects (your relatives) is to find images from their lives – and to present them in a way that is accessible to current and future generations.
Imagery can supply a deeper understanding of our ancestors’ lifestyles than many other forms of documentation. A map of an ancestor’s hometown can help us understand the dimensions of his or her life, but a hand drawing or a painting of that town from the same time provides a cache of environmental information that might otherwise be unknowable.
A great example is a hand-drawing of the tiny 17th-century settlement of Moore’s Lodge, Maryland – a place that served as the first Charles County courthouse. We might conclude from our stereotype of Colonial life that Moore’s Lodge would somehow resemble a Colonial Williamsburg reenactment, but the map of Moore’s Lodge presents a much rougher lifestyle for the settlers. The illustrator made a point of depicting larger-than-life stockades, allowing the viewer to come to his or her own conclusions about their importance at the time. The tiny trails leading into town speak of the limitations on commerce at the time. An orchard implies the settlers’ efforts at permanence. These implications were a real eye-opener for one Narratio Vitae customer, whose family owned the courthouse in the early 1700s.
Another great example of an image supplying context to a relative’s life is the one we found of John S. Quinn, an early 20th-century track star in Boston. While the Quinn family knew their grandfather was a runner, they did not understand the extent of his fame. When Narratio Vitae discovered his image in the Boston Herald archives, the family was thrilled. Not only did they have documentation of John S. Quinn’s stardom, but the image provide something more tangible to hand down to generations.
A third example – and the kind of image that is becoming increasingly accessible to researchers on the open internet – is one we found of a customer’s ancestor’s World War II ship. Narratio Vitae not only discovered the ancestor’s military service information, but paired it with an image of the actual ship the ancestor served on. An image of the ship allowed the customer’s imagination to run wild. They could envision their ancestor’s life aboard the ship, and could begin to understand what he might have gone through.
It’s getting easier to find historical imagery, but it still takes a lot of time and effort to find specific subjects, since the subjects of photos and illustrations were not frequently listed by the original photographer/artist. With persistent, broad searches (instead of trying to find your relative alone, try to ind his or her military unit, for example), online search engines can return a trove of images if they’ve been appropriately curated. Beyond a broad online search, serious genealogists will pay for access to newspaper archives and other periodical archives, which retain well-tagged and well-dated images. The Library of Congress, and national and state archives have amassed collections of unique imagery, and new efforts like deadfred.com claim to be making headway with genealogical imagery curation.
Your family tree and the fact of your ancestors’ professions and places of residence are interesting enough… for starters. But your ancestors’ motivations are the more compelling story, with implications for your family’s current generation and many generations to come. Sleuthing your ancestors’ motivations can be one of the most rewarding genealogical efforts. Unfortunately, few genealogists take this extra “deductive” step.
One of our favorite examples of this deductive effort is our research into the Novom family. It has lessons for all family historians. When Narratio Vitae began its research into the Novoms, the current generation knew little about its past beyond a great-grandfather, and most of its historical information was based on family legacy. This isn’t unusual for the children and grandchildren of recent immigrants, who often seem to focus more on developing a new life than on re-adjudicating the past. But with time and establishment, families begin to wonder about their deeper history.
For the Novoms, as for so many other American Jewish families, there was an unspoken dread of digging too deeply into the harsh reality of their departure from Europe to America. But they wanted to know where they came from and why they left their original home. They knew their grandfather had arrived to New York in the early 1900s, but not much else. Family tradition held that their grandparents had fled the Russian pogroms – organized massacres of Jewish communities.
Narratio Vitae dug. And dug. And dug. By reverse-transcribing into English the transcribed and misspelled Russian place name of great-grandfather Joe Novom’s original home town as recorded on his naturalization petition, we found that he had lived in Panevezhys, Russia (now Lithuania). This gave us a starting point for homing in on the conditions of his departure.
By consulting numerous obscure historical records and narratives from the time, available on passionately committed genealogical sites like JewishGen and the National Archives, we were able to contextualize their departure. We found that Joe Novom’s motivations were probably similar to the motivations of the thousands of other Jews who fled Russia at the same time. Joe and his wife Bessie grew up under the tough conditions of pre-Revolution Russia, where as Jews they were singled out in a violent game of retribution between the Czarists and their detractors. Panevezhys in particular had a high population of Jews and was a center of discontent. Joe and his wife Bessie fled Russia shortly after the Revolution of 1905, along with about 80 percent of the Jewish youth of Panevezhys.
Beyond confirming the Novoms’ family legend of their grandparents’ distressed flight from Russia, Narratio Vitae was able to describe the specific conditions of their departure and to help the family understand the emotions behind the Novoms’ decision to leave Lithuania behind. It could not have been easy.
While each family is different, the basic process of deducing ancestors’ motivations takes a similar line. With the Novom case, Narratio Vitae established the fact of the Novoms’ geographic residence during a specific time period, and conducted a broad “lateral” investigation into the environmental conditions at that time. We spent a lot of time doing a literature review to find descriptive primary sources. The pressure of Czarists was the consistent topic of those sources, and that pressure was felt by all Jews in Panevezhys. The Novoms were no exception.
Revealing ancestors’ motivations may be beyond many amateur genealogists’ scope of effort because of the time and complex research required. But it’s probably the most important story a genealogist can hand down to later generations. As always, Narratio Vitae is standing by to help.
So you’ve done the detailed work of proving your ancestors’ names and birth dates, and you’ve linked back a few generations. And among the details you’ve discovered is the appealing idea that your family was not just a nebulous string of names on paper; instead, your family was part of a small town or a rural county or a thriving city – a place that had an important influence on your family’s fortunes. The space we live in can make or break us, and it’s important that we place families in their geographic context.
It can be difficult to envision the terrain of our ancestors’ lives. The terrain of 17th century mid-Atlantic America, for example, has been fundamentally changed by hundreds of years of political, commercial and natural modifications. To take a specific example, the Maddox family‘s 17th-century settlement of Port Tobacco, Maryland, was once a thriving port town that attracted leading politicians and businessmen during its heyday, but deforestation resulted in over-silting of the riverbed, making it too shallow for commercial vessels from England. The later establishment of the railway a few miles away meant Port Tobacco’s demise by the early 19th century. To look at Port Tobacco now, it’s nearly impossible for the Maddoxes to imagine the place’s former vitality. But explaining that vitality is crucial to developing an accurate narrative for posterity.
Researching geographic features can take a lot of time and patience. Starting with two maps is a good way to begin to understand where your family lived. First, find a map from the time of your family’s residence. Second, compare that historical map with a modern map of similar scale. Compare borders, transportation routes, place names and any landmarks. If you’ve spent a good amount of time researching your family line and their close associates, there’s a very good chance you’ll find many familiar names on the maps. The USGS provides a good guide to map use here. Using the Maddox family example again, a map of the area around Abbeville, South Carolina, would include hints of the Maddox family’s 18th- and 19th-century presence there – such as Maddox Shoals along the Saluda River, Maddox Mill, and Maddox Bridge. These landmarks tell a story of their own.
Plat maps, available in city and state archives, are the best resource for finding the precise location of your family’s former land or city property. Colonial plat maps include sometimes fanciful descriptions of the land, along with hand-drawn maps. More recent plat maps are much more precise, including clear perimeters and latitude/longitude details. Compare the plat map with both your old map and new map to geolocate your family’s site, and then use Google Maps to zoom in on the land. Record the Google Maps location in your records. It will be useful when you want to visit the location.
If you persevere, you’re likely to be surprised by existing research into the historical geography of your ancestral home. Most libraries’ local history sections include such studies. Another great place to look is in the digital library JSTOR, which houses an incredible array of studies. A great example of a “good find” is the research done by Smithsonian archeologist C. Malcolm Watkins into the Marlborough Town, Virginia, Colonial site. The archeologist definitively located Edward Maddox’s plot #15, which Edward bought in the 1690s, and it was easy to compare Watkins’ maps with Google Maps details despite the antiquity of the original maps.
As always, don’t expect immediate success with this genealogical research effort. It can take a good bit of luck to bump into the right information. But the more you know about your family, the more you can relate bits of seemingly disparate information to the geographic terrain of their lives.
We’re happy to offer our new 1-minute “explainer” video for your viewing pleasure, below. We see our ancestral narratives as the perfect opportunity for our customers to initiate positive discussions with their families, and we hope you will, too. Let us know what you think!
Are you interested in developing your family history, but the cost seems prohibitive?
At Narratio Vitae, we recognize the difficulty of balancing your interest in developing your history for posterity against your need to pay your bills. To make this balancing act easier, we recommend cost-splitting your family narrative. Cost-splitting minimizes the cost for individual family members and has the added benefit of attracting stronger family participation in family narrative development.
Two cost-splitting apps make it incredibly easy to collect funds from far-flung relatives and friends, and to send those funds to Narratio Vitae for payment:
PayPal: PayPal’s Send Money app allows users with accounts to send money directly and securely to email addresses and mobile phone numbers. Account holders can track each other’s payments and debts on the app. If you’re organizing a family narrative with Narratio Vitae, you would simply ask your relatives to set up PayPal accounts and send a certain amount to you, and then you would transfer the final sum to Narratio Vitae’s existing PayPal account.
Venmo: Similar to PayPal’s system, Venmo allows users with accounts to share costs on its app, but Venmo emphasizes the social aspect of purchases by allowing users to discuss the purchase in real time on the app. If you’re organizing a family narrative purchase, you would ask your relatives to set up Venmo accounts, and then you could converse with them in the app about the purchase. The app also allows the group to see each other’s obligations and payments – so you can easily goad parsimonious Aunt Penny into making her payment.
Of course Narratio Vitae also invites its clients to pay with traditional forms of payment, such as credit card and personal check, and will work with each client to make the process as easy as possible.
At Narratio Vitae (“life story” in Latin), we constantly encounter the undying reflections of our clients’ pasts, and we revel in the thrill of a good ghost story. This Halloween, three movies reign as genuinely creepy ghost stories. We highlighted Under the Shadowlast week, and here’s a third for your consideration…
OK, so it’s not a movie, but of the 2016 releases, it belongs in the top three with our other selections… American Horror Story seemed to have been going off the rails with seasons four and five, but the new season, American Horror Story: Roanoke, redeems the series, and particularly appeals to history buffs like us. It’s receiving great reviews.
Roanoke is a story within a story, documenting the haunted lives of a couple who fled their colonial-era home in North Carolina after being assaulted by a gang. Part of the intrigue is in unraveling a complex network of ghosts. While viewers’ attention seems to be focused on Lady Gaga’s central character Scathach, a witch, the show develops a host of ghouls based on an (apocryphal) story that the colonists in Roanoke all became ghosts after a “blood moon ritual.” Be ready for blood and guts.